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Showing posts from 2020

Types of Agroforestry

Type of Agroforestry• Mainly the agroforestry divide in five parts. (1) Silvopasture (2) Aelly Cropping (3) Forest Farming (4) Riparian Forest Buffers (5) Windbreakers / Shelterbelts
(1) Silvopasture:- Silvopasture is the practices of integrating trees, forage and the grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way. It utilizes the principles of managed grazing and it is one of several distinct forms of Agroforestry.

(2) Alley Cropping:- Alley Cropping is the planting of rows of trees or shrubs wide enough to create alleyways within which agronomic or forage crops are planted or produced. In this example of alley cropping, corn is grazing between rows of pecan trees.

(3) Forest Farming:- Forest Farming is the cultivation of high-value crops under the protection of a managed tree canopy. Forest farming can provide shorter-tern income while high-quality trees are being grown for wood or other tree products. Forest farming is most often used on private land to supplement family in…

Plantation Forestry

Forest crop or stand raise artificially either by sowing or planting - Ford-Robertson, 1971

·Plantationforestry, based on successful breeding of superior tree genotypes, is becoming more widely used by international forestry companies, since it offers the possibility to grow and manage forests of high economic value and superior quality.·However, a number of highly desirable traits are not readily available in the breeding population and may be introduced using desirable genes from other organisms.·Forest molecular biology, and in particular tree genetic engineering is now at a stage where the technologies are readily available to transfer specific traits of commercial and scientific interest into forest trees.

Process of working of plantation forestry-
1.Estabalishment 2.Planting 3.Harvest 4.Woos Products

Principles of Agroforestry

Principles of Agroforestry * Agroforestry is help in eradicate hunger through basic systems of pro-poor food production.
* Reduce rural poverty through Market-driven, locally led trees Cultivation system that generate income and build assets.
* Build human and institutional capacity in agroforestry research and development.
* Enable the rural poor to adapt to climate change and to benefits from emerging carbon markets through tree cultivation.
* Advance the health and nutrition of the rural poor through agroforestry systems.
* Biodiversity conservation through agroforestry-based solutions that reward the poor for their provision.

History of Paper

History of the Paper
In the past 50 years paper and pulp production has multiplied ten to fifteen folds (although the population is just double). ØThe paper and pulp industry in the second largest consumer of wood
ØFrom the very beginning of the civilization man used to draw symbols on rocks and bones, inscribed on clay tablet (Mesopotamia).
ØLater, human beings began using boards made of wood, metal and loam.
ØAbout 5000 yrs (2400 BC) ago the Egyptians cut thin strips from the stem of the marsh grass (

Definition of Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate •Weather:- Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time (day to day state of the atmosphere in a region), it's called weather.
* Weather is measured for short term and weather forecasting by collecting meteorological data. Weather forecasting in which measured the temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness visibility etc.
• Climate:- Climate is the long term average of weather, typically average over a period of 30 years, it's called climate.
* The climate refers to the weather pattern, using statistical data of a place over a long period of time. Generally, the climate of a region is the general state of the climate system at that location the current time.

UNESCO, what is the full form of UNESCO?

UNESCO, what is the full form of UNESCO?

“United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization” UNESCO is a special agency that belongs to the United Nations Abbreviation- UNESCO Formation- 4 November 1945; 74 years ago Type - United Nations Specialized Agency Legal status - Active Headquarter: -Paris, France Head Director-General- Audrey Azoulay Parent organization- United Nations Economic and Social Council Website- Presently, UNESCO has 11 associate members & 195 member states.
Organization Primary Motive: - to bring peace and security through promotion of international collaboration in the fields of science, education, human resources, communication, culture and information. UNESCO came into existence in order to increase universal respect for justice, human rights and the rule of law along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. Since then, it continued with the belief that the sustainability of peace amongst nations must not held by po…


IUCN ( International Union for Conservation of Nature) • IUCN was established on 5 October 1948 in the French town of Fontainebleau. • Headquarter:- Gland, Switzerland • CEO:- Grethel Aguilar (Jun 2019) • Founder:- Julian Huxley • Founded:- 5 October 1948, Fontainebleau, France. • Members:- 1400

* The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organisation working in the field of Nature conservation and sustainable use of Natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy and education. Or * International Union for Conservation of Nature is a democratic Union that brings together the world's most influential organization and top expert's in a combined effort to conserve nature and accelerate the transition to sustainable development.

• IUCN is a membership union composed of both government and civil society organisations. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its more than 1400 member organizati…

Father of Agroforestry

• “Joseph Russell Smith"(J. Russell Smith), father of Agroforestry. J. Russell Smith was born in Lincoln, Loudown country, Virginia, in 1874. He was belong a middle class family and his death in 1966. • J. Russell Smith was a geography professor of Columbia University. • Agroforestry was formally outlined in the early 20th century by American economic geographer J. Russell Smith in his book Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture (1929). • The book Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture was published in 1929. • Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture was scanned and this document prepared by the soil and Health Library in 2009.



Forest regeneration is the process by which new tree seedlings become established after forest trees have been harvested or have died from fire, insects, or disease. Regeneration is key to sustainable forestry and can be accomplished through two basic approaches. Methods of Regeneration From the above definition, it is apparent that there are two main methods of regenerating forest crops but in practice, a combination of the two methods is also sometimes adopted.Thus, the methods of regeneration of forest crops are i)Natural regeneration ii)Artificial regeneration and iii)Natural regeneration supplemented by artificial regeneration Natural Regeneration Natural regeneration is defined as ‘the renewal of a forest crop by self-sown seed or by coppice or root suckers.It also refers to the crop so obtained.Thus, the natural regeneration may be obtained from the following two main sources: i)From seed and ii)From vegetative parts When regeneration obtained from seed forms a crop, it is ca…


Botanical Name:- Mangifera Indica Family:- Ancardiaceae Origin:- Indo-Burma region

·Mango malformation was first observed in 1891 in Bihar. ·Malbhog variety of mango is most susceptible to water logged condition. ·Dashehari variety have highest fruit retention. ·Langra variety have highest number of perfect flowers. ·Mango can withstand deficiency of perfect flower. ·Mango variety Mulgoa is mono-embroyonic in India and polyembryonic in Florida. ·National fruit of India. ·About 39% of world mango is produced in India. ·Highest productivity in world- Venezuela. ·North Indian varieties: Alternate Bearer, monoembryonic, self incompatible ·South Indian varieties: Regular Bearer, polyembryonic ·Pollinator- house fly; pollinizing variety Bombay green – highest vita.-C ·Maturity indices: a. Alphonso-SG (specific gravity) 1.o1 to 1.02 b. Dashehari- SG-1.0 ·Mangos are highly susceptible to low temp. injury that’s why they should be stored above 5 °C temp. ·VHT (Vapour heat treat…