Types of Agroforestry

Type of Agroforestry

• Mainly the agroforestry divide in five parts.
(1) Silvopasture
(2) Aelly Cropping
(3) Forest Farming
(4) Riparian Forest Buffers
(5) Windbreakers / Shelterbelts

(1) Silvopasture:- Silvopasture is the practices of integrating trees, forage and the grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way. It utilizes the principles of managed grazing and it is one of several distinct forms of Agroforestry.


(2) Alley Cropping:- Alley Cropping is the planting of rows of trees or shrubs wide enough to create alleyways within which agronomic or forage crops are planted or produced. In this example of alley cropping, corn is grazing between rows of pecan trees.


(3) Forest Farming:- Forest Farming is the cultivation of high-value crops under the protection of a managed tree canopy. Forest farming can provide shorter-tern income while high-quality trees are being grown for wood or other tree products. Forest farming is most often used on private land to supplement family income.


(4) Riparian Forest Buffers:- A Riparian Forest Buffers or stream buffer is a vegetated area naer a stream, usually forest. Which help shade and partially protect the stream from the impact of adjacent land uses. It plays a key role in increasing water quality in associated streams, Rivera and lacks, thus providing environmental benefits. With the decline of many aquatic ecosystems due to agriculture, riparian buffers have become a very common conservation practice aimed at increasing water quality and reducing pollution.


(5) Windbreakers / Shelterbelts:- A windbreak is a planting usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted in hedgerows around the edges of field on farms.


Plantation Forestry



Forest crop or stand raise artificially either by sowing or planting
                                                - Ford-Robertson, 1971


  • ·       Plantationforestry, based on successful breeding of superior tree genotypes, is becoming more widely used by international forestry companies, since it offers the possibility to grow and manage forests of high economic value and superior quality.
  • ·       However, a number of highly desirable traits are not readily available in the breeding population and may be introduced using desirable genes from other organisms.
  • ·       Forest molecular biology, and in particular tree genetic engineering is now at a stage where the technologies are readily available to transfer specific traits of commercial and scientific interest into forest trees.



Process of working of plantation forestry-

1.Estabalishment
2.Planting
3.Harvest
4.Woos Products


Principles of Agroforestry

Principles of Agroforestry

* Agroforestry is help in eradicate hunger through basic systems of pro-poor food production.

* Reduce rural poverty through Market-driven, locally led trees Cultivation system that generate income and build assets.

* Build human and institutional capacity in agroforestry research and development.

* Enable the rural poor to adapt to climate change and to benefits from emerging carbon markets through tree cultivation.

* Advance the health and nutrition of the rural poor through agroforestry systems.

* Biodiversity conservation through agroforestry-based solutions that reward the poor for their provision.

History of Paper


 

 In the past 50 years paper and pulp production has multiplied ten to fifteen folds (although the population is just double).
  • Ø The paper and pulp industry in the second largest consumer of wood

Ø From the very beginning of the civilization man used to draw symbols on rocks and bones, inscribed on clay tablet (Mesopotamia).

Ø Later, human beings began using boards made of wood, metal and loam.

Ø About 5000 yrs (2400 BC) ago the Egyptians cut thin strips from the stem of the marsh grass (Cyperous papyus)— soften them in water — layered— formed a mat — mat is crashed until thin and allow it to dry in sun —used for paper

Ø The Egyptians then replaced these writing materials with papyrus scroll.

Ø This was much lighter and easier to use as it was derived from a special kind of cane (Cyperus papyrus), which grow vigoursly along the river Nile.

Ø The word ‘paper’ is related, of course, to the Egyptian term Papyrus

Ø When a new material began to offer competition to it  papyrus was used less and less frequently.

Ø This new writing material was developed in Pergamum and consisted of calf’s or goat’s leather which was washed and polished with pumice stone so that it could be written over on both sides.

Ø The actual discovery of paper by the Chinese appears to date back to the year 105 AD or around 107 AD it shown in official report and credited to T saï-Lun who served as the minister of agriculture under King Hoti.

Ø Tsaï-Lun developed a true paper (true inventors of paper) and he succeeded in creating a mass from old cloths and cooked peelings which yielded a brilliant white sheet when it was passed through a sieve and dried.

Ø The production of paper was kept secret in China for a long time.

Ø Chinese paper making technique become more specialized with over centuries in sized, coated, dyed and insect protected


Ø  Chinese establihsed a paper at Samarkand (6th centuary) became the first center of paper production in the Islamic world.
Ø It than spread in Korea (2nd century) and Japan (6-7th century), and Asia—Nepal—India—Europe where paper rapidly established itself as a writing material.

Ø The first paper mill known to have existed opened near Troyes in France in the year 1348. Further mills are to be found in Corbeil-Essonnes (1354) and Saint Cloud (1376).

Ø This new branch of industry gradually spread throughout Europe and it was given further momentum by the invention of letterpress printing by Gutenberg in 1445.

Ø Paper making in India, started about the year 1830 with the installation of the first paper mill in West Bengal

Ø At the beginning of the 19th century, paper was being manufactured by hand.

Ø Paper manufacturing established itself in Europe around 1825. Around 1850 the first machine was developed for the manufacturing of multi-layer cartons.

Ø At this time there were more than 300 machines in England, about 250 in France, and almost as many in Germany. Each of these machines, although very small and slow when compared with the technology of today.

Ø The machines of today can be up to 100 meters long and produce paper of significant width at a speed of several thousand meters per minute, producing and an average 100 tons of paper reels per day.

There are a wide range of hardwood and softwood trees that are used in papermaking


Definition of Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate

Weather:- Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time (day to day state of the atmosphere in a region), it's called weather.

* Weather is measured for short term and weather forecasting by collecting meteorological data. Weather forecasting in which measured the temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness visibility etc.

• Climate:- Climate is the long term average of weather, typically average over a period of 30 years, it's called climate.

* The climate refers to the weather pattern, using statistical data of a place over a long period of time. Generally, the climate of a region is the general state of the climate system at that location the current time.

UNESCO, what is the full form of UNESCO?


UNESCO, what is the full form of UNESCO?



“United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization”
UNESCO is a special agency that belongs to the United Nations
Abbreviation     - UNESCO
Formation         - 4 November 1945; 74 years ago
Type                   - United Nations Specialized Agency
Legal status       - Active
Headquarter: - Paris, France
Head Director-General    - Audrey Azoulay
Parent organization      - United Nations Economic and Social Council
Website       - www.unesco.org
Presently, UNESCO has 11 associate members & 195 member states.

Organization Primary Motive: - to bring peace and security through promotion of international collaboration in the fields of science, education, human resources, communication, culture and information.
 UNESCO came into existence in order to increase universal respect for justice, human rights and the rule of law along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. Since then, it continued with the belief that the sustainability of peace amongst nations must not held by political and economic agreements, but also through humanitarian solidarity as well.



IUCN

IUCN ( International Union for Conservation of Nature)

• IUCN was established on 5 October 1948 in the French town of Fontainebleau.
• Headquarter:- Gland, Switzerland
• CEO:- Grethel Aguilar (Jun 2019)
• Founder:- Julian Huxley
• Founded:- 5 October 1948, Fontainebleau, France.
• Members:- 1400

* The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organisation working in the field of Nature conservation and sustainable use of Natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy and education.
                                        Or
* International Union for Conservation of Nature is a democratic Union that brings together the world's most influential organization and top expert's in a combined effort to conserve nature and accelerate the transition to sustainable development.

• IUCN is a membership union composed of both government and civil society organisations. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its more than 1400 member organization's and their input of more than 15,000 expert's. This diversity and vast expertise makes IUCN 

Father of Agroforestry

• “Joseph Russell Smith"(J. Russell Smith), father of Agroforestry. J. Russell Smith was born in Lincoln, Loudown country, Virginia, in 1874. He was belong a middle class family and his death in 1966.

• J. Russell Smith was a geography professor of Columbia University.
• Agroforestry was formally outlined in the early 20th century by American economic geographer J. Russell Smith in his book Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture (1929).
• The book Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture was published in 1929.
• Tree crops: A permanent Agriculture was scanned and this document prepared by the soil and Health Library in 2009.

Regeneration




Forest regeneration is the process by which new tree seedlings become established after forest trees have been harvested or have died from fire, insects, or disease. Regeneration is key to sustainable forestry and can be accomplished through two basic approaches.
          Methods of Regeneration
          From the above definition, it is apparent that there are two main methods of regenerating forest crops but in practice, a combination of the two methods is also sometimes adopted.  Thus, the methods of regeneration of forest crops are
i)             Natural regeneration
ii)            Artificial regeneration and
iii)           Natural regeneration supplemented by artificial regeneration
Natural Regeneration
          Natural regeneration is defined as ‘the renewal of a forest crop by self-sown seed or by coppice or root suckers.  It also refers to the crop so obtained.  Thus, the natural regeneration may be obtained from the following two main sources:
i)             From seed and
ii)            From vegetative parts
When regeneration obtained from seed forms a crop, it is called a seedling crop which is defined as ‘a crop consisting of seedlings neither planted nor of coppice or root sucker origin but originating in situ from natural regeneration’.  When this seedling crop grows into a forest, it is called a high forest.  When regeneration obtained by coppice forms a crop, it is called coppice crop and when it develops into a forest, it is called coppice forest to differentiate it from the high forest.  Root suckers are, however, not used for large scale regeneration operation.
Natural Regeneration from Seed
Natural regeneration from seed depends upon
1)       Seed production       2)       Seed dispersal
3)       Germination and       4)       Establishment

BASICS ABOUT MANGO


            BASICS  OFMANGO CULTIVATION

Botanical Name:- Mangifera Indica
Family:- Ancardiaceae
Origin:- Indo-Burma region


·         Mango malformation was first observed in 1891 in Bihar.
·         Malbhog variety of mango is most susceptible to water logged condition.
·         Dashehari variety have highest fruit retention.
·         Langra variety have highest number of perfect flowers.
·         Mango can withstand deficiency of perfect flower.
·         Mango variety Mulgoa is mono-embroyonic in India and polyembryonic in Florida.
·         National fruit of India.
·         About 39% of world mango is produced in India.
·         Highest productivity in world- Venezuela.
·         North Indian varieties: Alternate Bearer, monoembryonic, self incompatible
·         South Indian varieties: Regular Bearer, polyembryonic
·         Pollinator- house fly; pollinizing variety Bombay green – highest vita.-C
·         Maturity indices: a. Alphonso-SG (specific gravity) 1.o1 to 1.02
                                b. Dashehari- SG-1.0
·         Mangos are highly susceptible to low temp. injury that’s why they should be stored above 5 °C temp.
·         VHT (Vapour heat treatment) is recommended for disinfection of mango fruit flies and stone weevils.
·          Two crop of mango is taken in Kanyakumari district of TN.
·         Mango hybridization work was first started Bruns and Prayag in 1911 at Pune
·         Caging technique of breeding in mango was first used by Dr. R.N. Singh
·         Good mango varieties have a TSS of 20%
·         Polyembryonic rootstocks of mango:
1.       1.Bappakai 2.Chandrakaran 3. Goa 4.Mulgoa 5.Olour 6.Kurukkan 7.Solan 8.Mulgoa 9.Bellary 10.Villiacolumban 11.Nileshwar dwarf
·         Rumani is used for dwarfing for dwarfing effect in Dashehari
·         Olour is used foe dwarfing effecting in Langra & Himsagar
·         Villicolumban is used for dwarfing effect in Alphonso
Ø  Salt resistant rootstock of mango: Kurukkan, Moovandan, Nekkaare
Ø  No. of perfect(bisexual) flower   Highest- 68.9%min Langra variety
                                                          Lowest-  0.74% Rumani variety
Ø  In mango, only 0.1% flower (perfect) develops fruits to maturity (Spray 2-4-D 10PPM, overcome this problem)
Ø  Spongy tissue was first observed by Cheema and Dhani in 1934.
Ø  India contributes 54.2% of total mango production in the world.
Ø  Temp. between 24-27 °C is ideal for mango cultivation
Ø  Introduced polyembryonic rootstock of mango:
                                                                                                     1.Apricot 2.Simmonds 3.Higgins 4.Pico 5.strawberry 6. Salary 7.Combodiana 8.Terpentine 9.Carbao 10.Saigon
·         Beside  Alphonso, Kesar, Gulabkhas, Lakhan Bhog and Safdar Pasand are exported
·         Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, and Bombay green are self incompatible mango cultivar
·         Xavier-variety have highest TSS-24.8%
·         Storage temperature: (A) mature fruit 6-7 °C (B) Ripened fruit 20 °C
·         Longevity of mango seeds: 30 days
·         Black tip was first observed in 1909 by woodhouse                                                                                                                                              
                                              Varieties of Mango: -
1.       Alphonso
2.       Banganapalli
3.       Bombay green
4.       Chausa
5.       Dashehari
6.       Fazli
7.       Kesar
8.       Badami
9.       Langra
10.   Niranjan
11.   Neelum
12.   Rosica
13.   Madhulica
14.   Lal sindhuri
15.   Rumani
16.   Malika
17.   Amrapali
18.   Ratana
19.   Sindhu
20.   Ambika
21.   Pusa lalima
22.   Pusa partibha
23.   Pusa pitamber
24.   Sai sunganndha
25.   Pusa suryas

Forestry

Types of Agroforestry

Type of Agroforestry • Mainly the agroforestry divide in five parts. (1) Silvopasture (2) Aelly Cropping (3) Forest Farming (4) ...